Once the surface area and the modal distribution have been developed, the efficiency levels are established for each type of building for both the BAU and Efficiency Scenarios.
The basic components of energy consumption considered are: building envelope (walls, roofs and floors and glass surfaces), lighting, appliances and air conditioning and heating. Different measures of active efficiency have been applied to each component. Passive elements have also been incorporated, such as insulation of different thicknesses, breaks in the thermal bridge, thermal inertia, solar advantages for heating or natural lighting.
Some other passive elements have not been included such as the optimisation of orientation and shape, or bioclimatic building considerations, since they would require a specific analysis for each building and place. Therefore the results leave a margin for improvement in the design of each particular building.